Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Winds of Eden - Life and Death Ten Thousand Years Ago!

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I often times wonder what it would be like to have lived a hundred or a thousand  or even ten thousand years ago like my characters in the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy. I do not know if my wondering about the past is common or unusual. When I used to ramble on about this to my mother while growing up, she always used to tell me that I was born in the wrong century. I think she was right.  
Figure one. The World of the Folsom People in the
Shadows on the Trail Trilogy.
How about you? Do you imagine yourself in a different time and place? Can you imagine living or visiting the late Pleistocene / early Holocene around 10,700 years ago and let’s say the high plains of Colorado or Wyoming? Hmm…for me, I have to admit that’s an interesting scenario. We could go visit a time and place when and where the characters of the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy were alive and breathing. You are probably thinking that it might be time for a padded room for me. “Don’t you know the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy is a work of fiction?” you might ask me. I would answer, "Yes, I know the Trilogy was fiction, after all, I wrote the books and much of  the story line came from my imagination. Still, those people really existed!"
So, let's go back to the past. Let’s board our make believe time machine and set the dial for 10,700 years ago. Now, close your eyes. Here we go!  

Ah, we made it! We now climb out of the time machine and look around. We had just left a modern and overcrowded city in the year 2016, but the same place 10,700 years earlier is empty and I mean really empty. There are no buildings or vehicles. There are no jet contrails across the pollution-free, crystal blue sky. there is just wide open space - beautiful, very wide open space!  
Figure two. Extinct American lion to the right, comparing its size
with a human on the left and a modern African lion in the middle.

Those glorious modern conveniences that we love and take for granted will not be invented for thousands of years in the future. For the rugged people who lived in North America at the time the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy took place, it had to have been a rough environment. Every day, the Folsom People must have fought just to survive another day and when the sun went down, watch out. They were on the menu for several nocturnal animal hunters of the night. The Folsom People had two critical items to survive; stay off the menu of the predators that hunted them and find food before they starve. Finding food was not easy. There were no grocery stores to walk into and pick the meat under cellophane. The Folsom people found their own food or you died.
Then, there was the climatic change that had North America in its grasp at the end of the Pleistocene. The continent was heating up and the glaciers were melting. The Folsom People not only had to fight climate change, but they also had to worry about dangerous wild beasts, such as those mammals that were heading for extinction, but not quite there, such as dire wolves, the American lion, small-faced bear, and sabre tooth cats. Not to mention those wild beasts and predators that were efficient enough to ultimately survive the Pleistocene and not go extinct, such as mountain lions,
Figure three. How do you think prehistoric people
explained these phenomena and disasters?   
wolves, and bears. If these beasts attacked and injured a prehistoric human, there were no hospitals or doctors to help. I am sure the Folsom People had some of their own remedies, but the remedies were primitive at best. There are numerous examples of archaeologists finding prehistoric human skeletons and discovering in the autopsies that these prehistoric people had all kinds of maladies such as unset and healed broken bones, raging abscesses, teeth worn down to the nerves, stone projectile points stuck in their bodies, skull fractures, eye sockets damaged, and many other untreated injuries. It sounds like the NFL and Obamacare was nowhere to be found.

If the Folsom People got into trouble, how did they handle it? They could not just dial 911 and expect help. There was no police department or fire department or hospital or ambulances. They were on their own in a super tough place to live. How did they protect themselves from these wild beasts and how did they fill their bellies with fresh meat? By our standards, the Folsom People's weapon systems were primitive and as I mentioned earlier, some of the animals the Folsom People hunted, hunted them.

Makes me glad we have a time machine and can travel back to good old 2016! Read the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy and see my version of the Folsom People's trials and tribulations. Then, tell me what you think. 

      I wish all of you a safe and prosperous 2016!

Winds of Eden - The Finale of the Trilogy 

Shadows on the Trail - first book in the Trilogy 

 Ghosts of the Heart - the second book in the Trilogy


Tuesday, November 11, 2014

WINDS OF EDEN - Long Awaited Dramatic Conclusion to Best Selling Prehistoric Trilogy!

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Fans of the SHADOWS ON THE TRAIL series from bestselling author John Bradford Branney are already receiving their preordered copies of the final book in the trilogy

What happens when the hunters become the hunted? That is what readers have been eagerly waiting to find out in WINDS OF EDEN, the thrilling finale to John Bradford Branney’s series of books about a Paleoindian tribe in prehistoric America.

In the conclusion of this highly acclaimed historical series of novels, the Folsom People return to the plains and mountains of Texas and Colorado at the end of the last Ice Age, a time of dramatic climate change, rising temperatures and melting glaciers. This was a time when several large mammal species went extinct and when small bands of humans roamed the mountains and plains attempting to survive in an unforgiving and violent world. WINDS OF EDEN quickly propels readers into the story where the first two novels of the trilogy left off. Chayton and the Folsom People are continuing their fight of survival in a violent and unpredictable prehistoric world with little more than their spears and wits.

“We are thrilled to be bringing out this latest installment,” said Sarah Luddington, Mirador Publishing’s Commissioning Editor. “John has a knack for bringing this era to life and combines this with an incredible eye for detail in a thoroughly engaging story. John’s attention to historical accuracy is extraordinary and he even includes three genuine indigenous languages within the narrative.”

Hailed for its accurate depiction of life on the prairies and mountains of prehistoric Texas and
Famous rock - the four inch long Alibates discoidal biface
that was the inspiration for the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy.  
Colorado, WINDS OF EDEN is a fast-paced read that accurately builds on clues from the archaeological record and traditions practiced by the first Americans.

“In the first two books of the SHADOWS ON THE TRAIL TRILOGY my emphasis has been on the dynamics of survival for these early explorers of prehistoric America,” the author stated. “In WINDS OF EDEN, I took a slightly different direction from the first two books of the trilogy. Yes, the book is still a high-intensity adventure, but I have added another twist. In WINDS OF EDEN, the main characters must face the reality of their own finite mortalities. I am hoping that readers take away much more than just reading a fun adventure story. This book is my most fulfilling work that I have written so far and I hope readers feel the same way.”

John Bradford Branney holds a geology degree and MBA from the University of Wyoming and
the University of Colorado, respectively. John currently lives in Texas and Colorado with his wife, Theresa. WINDS OF EDEN is the fifth published book by Author Branney.

Mirador Publishing continue their support of new authors and are proud to present John Bradford
Branney as an author to watch out for.

For more information visit the author at Shadows on the Trail Trilogy by John Bradford Branney on Facebook and at his blog at

SHADOWS ON THE TRAIL, GHOSTS OF THE HEART and WINDS OF EDEN are available in all good bookshops and online retailers both in paperback and eBook formats. Mirador Publishing may be contacted via their website at

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Monday, November 3, 2014

Folsom - Agate Basin Points and the SHADOWS ON THE TRAIL Quadrilogy

Figure 1 - Top projectile point is a 2.35 inch long Agate Basin dart point surface found on private land in Jefferson County, Colorado. Lower artifact is a Folsom dart point surface found on private land along the Colorado-Wyoming border in Albany County, Wyoming.
John Bradford Branney Collection.
In one of my earlier posts on this Shadows on the Trail Quadrilogy blog site, I explained why I used Native American languages to differentiate between the three different tribes in the Shadows on the Trail Quadrilogy. I also differentiated between two of the tribes with their use of different projectile point types for hunting and weapons.

In the first book Shadows on the Trail, I used Folsom projectile points for the Folsom People and Agate Basin projectile points for the Mountain People. Figure 1 is a photograph of an Agate Basin dart or spear point and a Folsom dart point. Both points are in my collection and were made from the same or similar material (Knife River Chalcedony), but as the photo shows, the technology and morphology of Agate Basin and Folsom points was quite different. 
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In Wyoming, there is a famous archaeological site called Hell Gap. At the Hell Gap site, the investigators found an extensive geologic section of rock representing thousands of years of human occupation. According to Irwin-Williams (1973), radiocarbon dates from the Hell Gap site indicate that the people who used Agate Basin points existed sometime between 10,500 to 10,000 years ago. The Folsom people existed between 10,900 to 10,200 years ago based on radiocarbon dating from the Hell Gap and the Agate Basin site in northeastern Wyoming. Geologic evidence and overlapping radiocarbon dates indicate that there was a possible overlap between latter Folsom People and earlier Agate Basin People.
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Below, is a passage from my book Shadows on the Trail, the first book in the Shadows on the Trail Quadrilogy. In this particular scene, Avonaco and two hunters from the River People are searching for evidence of who attacked their village and massacred their people. The hunters found a spear with a unique projectile point. Avonaco describes his past experience with this type of projectile point.

Waquini then handed Avonaco an object and said, “Avonaco, we found this in the brush near the village.”

Avonaco held the spear in his hands. The spear shaft was the same wood that the River People used, but the stone spear point was different. The stone spear point was thinner and longer than any Avonaco had ever seen and made from a shiny, black rock material. Avonaco ran his thumb down the sharp edge of the spear point and quickly pulled his thumb away.
Éŝkos!–Sharp!” Avonaco exclaimed, looking down at his bleeding thumb.

He continued to examine the spear point, “I have only seen a spear point like this once made from this black rock. When I was a boy, I found a spear point much like this deep in the mountains. My father told me the black rock comes from the mountains.”

Avonaco then inspected the sinew wrap that connected the stone spear point to the wooden spear shaft. The River People used sinew from deer or bison to attach their spear points. 

Even though there nay have been a time overlap between Folsom and Agate Basin People, Bradley (Frison 1991; Kornfeld, Frison, and Larson 2010) did not believe that Agate Basin technology came from Folsom technology. While a Folsom point is wide, thin and fluted, an Agate Basin point is thick and lenticular in cross section. If Agate Basin technology came from Folsom technology, there had o be a dramatic change that has yet to be understood or explained.
Figure 2 - Paleoindian projectile point evolution from left to right; Clovis, Goshen-Plainview, Folsom, Agate Basin,
Hell Gap, and Scottsbluff. Note the radical change from indented bases to lanceolate-shaped points at the Folsom / Agate Basin transition. For scale, Scottsbluff point to the right is 3.95 inches long. John Bradford Branney Collection. 

Since the technology to make Agate Basin points was much different than to make fluted Folsom points, do you think that maybe there were two culturally different human populations utilizing the same bison resources during the latter years of Folsom? Stanford (1999: 312) postulated that Agate Basin technology may have come from an earlier Northern Great Basin / Plateau projectile point that was typologically similar to Agate Basin but predates Agate Basin on the High Plains by over one thousand years. Stanford proposed that it was possible that Agate Basin technology came southward from the Paleo Arctic / Denali Complex people in eastern Beringia who transferred the technology to northern plains people. Figure 2 is a photograph of Paleoindian projectile point types beginning with Clovis and ending with Scottsbluff. My objective of figure 2 is to show the technological change, the paradigm shift that occurred between Folsom and Agate Basin. The only commonality between Folsom and Agate Basin projectile points as far as I can see; they are both rocks and have sharp points.

Were the people who made Folsom and Agate Basin points the same people? What caused them to change projectile point technology? How will we ever find out what the relationship was between the Folsom and Agate Basin Peoples? We probably won't find out. Investigators fit the archaeological puzzle together with hard evidence available in archaeological sites. We know from archaeological sites that Folsom and Agate Basin Peoples had a similar economy, centered around bison procurement. But, to really understand the differences between these two Paleoindian cultures, we need the "soft evidence", i.e. languages and other perishable cultural practices and artifacts, and these are not going to be found in the archaeological record.
Add caption


Frison, George C.

1991        Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains. Second Edition. Academic Press.

Irwin-Williams, Cynthia, Henry T. Irwin, George Agogino, and C. Vance Haynes
1973    Hell Gap: Paleo-Indian occupation on the High Plains. Plains Anthropologist. 18      (59 ):   40-53.   

Kornfeld, Marcel, George C. Frison, and Mary Lou Larson
2010    Prehistoric Hunters-Gatherers of the High Plains and Rockies. Third Edition. Left    Coast Press. Walnut Creek, California. 

Stanford, D. J.
1999    Paleoindian Archeology and Late Pleistocene Environments in the Plains and Southwestern United States. In Ice Age Peoples of North America, edited by R. Bonnichsen. Oregon State University Press. Corvallis, Oregon.

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Winds of Eden and the American Lion

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When I was doing my research for Winds of Eden, the third prehistoric adventure book in my Shadows on the Trail Trilogy, I was searching for large predators that were around at the same time as the Folsom People in my books, sometime around 10,700 years ago. If you have read the first two books of the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy, you know how I like putting the Folsom People in precarious and unpredictable situations with some of the wilder wildlife of the Pleistocene.  

One of the most intriguing North American Pleistocene predators I found in my research was the 
Figure one. Reconstruction of an American Lion
(Panthera leo atrox).
American Lion or Panthera leo atrox. Its two distinguishing characteristics were its massive size and its long, slender limbs. Based on skeletal remains, Panthera leo atrox is estimated to have weighed on average between 390 to 520 pounds with larger specimens exceeding well over 700 pounds. Panthera leo atrox ranged in length from 5.3 to 8.2 feet long. Now, that was a big cat! Only European cave lions rivaled the American Lion’s size.  

Based on where paleontologists have found the skeletal remains of Panthera leo atrox, it appears that this large cat preferred living in open country. According to Kurtén and Anderson in their remarkable book Pleistocene Mammals of North America, there is some evidence that Peloindians hunted American lions. Remains of Panthera leo atrox were found in a refuse pile in Jaguar Cave in Idaho where associated charcoal was radiocarbon-dated to 10,370 ± 350 years BP (age in years before
Figure two. Size comparison between human, African Lion and American Lion.
Courtesy of
1950). The extinction of Panthera leo atrox seemed to have occurred after that, around 10,000 years ago or near the end of the Pleistocene. This was well within the timeframe for when the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy took place. Perhaps the readers of Winds of Eden may see one or two of these American Lions in Winds of Eden. Who knows? Well, I know, but I am not telling.  

                                                      The genetic lineage of Panthera leo atrox is not without controversy. Based on skeletal remains, paleontologists continue to debate whether Panthera leo atrox was more lion-like or jaguar-like. In the first half of the last century, French paleontologist Marcellin Boule and German paleontologist Max Hilzheimer stated that Panthera leo atrox had a mosaic of features from both lions and jaguars, but that a consolidation of
Figure three. Skeleton from American Lion at the George C.
Page Museum at La Brea Tar Pits.   
its features did not match any living species. Later in the century, John Merriam and Chester Stock proposed that after studying skulls from Panthera leo atrox, the mammal more closely resembled a jaguar than a lion. In the latest study, John M. Harris and Per Christianson focused on the cranium and jaws of Panthera leo atrox and proposed them to be more jaguar-like.

I am sure the debate will continue, but from my perspective, the bottom line is that Panthera leo atrox or the American Lion was appreciably larger and genetically different than both the living versions of the African lion and the South American jaguar. Since skeletal remains cannot directly tell us what the behavior and hunting habits of Panthera leo atrox were, I am going to assume a modern-day analogy to one of the most fierce open country predators, the African Lion.

Figure four. Skull of American Lion,
sixteen inches long, at the
National Museum of Natural History.
An adult male African lion stands three feet high at the shoulders and weighs between 350 to 440 pounds. This is a massive beast, but it is somewhat diminutive compared to the extinct Panthera leo atrox. In fact, the African Lion is twenty–five per cent smaller than the skeletal remains of Panthera leo atrox. African lion males have manes that vary in both color and fullness. The fur coats on African lions blend well in a semi-desert environment and their belly fur is usually paler as to neutralize shadows from the sun. In starlight, lions are gray and people have described them as ghostlike. There is no evidence whether the males of Panthera leo atrox had manes or what the coloration was for this extinct species.  

African lions are agile and graceful. A surprise rush is a critical factor in the success of a lion during a hunt. Once the lion has caught its prey, it uses its claws and forelimbs like grappling hooks to seize and drag the prey to their mouths. The African lion’s spine is supple enough to allow it to press its belly against the ground while arching its back like a bow in anticipation of leaping at its prey. The African Lion’s legs are powerful and they are able to leap over fences as tall as twelve feet. African lions can spring forward at distances of over forty feet and they can run in short bursts at over forty miles per hour. It is hard to imagine what the much larger Panthera leo atrox could have done. Like most carnivores, the African Lion has two pairs of bladelike carnassial teeth located about halfway between the front of the jaw and the jaw joint. The carnassial teeth work together like scissors, allowing lions and other carnivores to slice off strips of flesh.

One of the more frightening characteristics of African lions is that they live and hunt in prides, which typically consists of five females, two males, and their young. While females do most of the hunting, the male lions protect the pride and patrol the territory, always on the lookout for other males and marking their territory with urine.

Sight is the primary sense that African lions use to live and hunt. African lions are very opportunistic
Figure five. African Lion, King of the Living Beasts. 
and will hunt at any time of the day or night, but they prefer darkness since this provides them an optimal advantage. When the lion pride hunts together, they usually spread out along a front or semi-circle. Lions have a reflective layer at the back of their eye that amplifies light into the eyeballs. This reflective layer makes a lion’s eyes shine in the dark. An African lion’s pupil is oval to round, just like ours. Smell and hearing are the next mostly widely used senses used by African lions.  African lions obtain most of their needed water from the animals they eat. They can survive in desert climates as long as there are animals to eat.  

Did Panthera leo atrox live and hunt in prides? We do not know. Just imagine if you are a Paleoindian hunter in the Folsom People’s tribe and you are armed with only spears. Then imagine that you bump into a solitary Panthera leo atrox or maybe even a pride of Panthera leo atrox? That would be a truly frightening experience. Read Winds of Eden and find out what happens. The first two books of the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy are also available! Click to order!          

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Ultrathin Knife Forms and the SHADOWS ON THE TRAIL TRILOGY

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If you have read my prehistoric adventure series the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy, you know that the Trilogy is about the Folsom prehistoric culture, a mystical group of people that actually existed in North America in the early Holocene between 10,900 to 10,200 years ago. One of the calling cards  the Folsom People left behind was their beautifully crafted fluted projectile points. I have dedicated several postings in my blog to these wonderfully fluted projectile points so I will not cover them in this posting.

Figure one. Four inch long Ultrathin knife form found in Wyoming
and exhibiting thinness, bi-concave x section, great width,
and long, flat flaking. John Branney Collection.
Another artifact that is often attributed to the Folsom People is the ultrathin knife forms. Ultrathin knife forms were specialized stone tools made with a sophisticated knapping technology by highly skilled knappers (Figure one). Archeologists and collectors have defined the specifications for ultrathin knife forms with these attributes: thinness, bi-concave cross section, great width, and a specialized flaking technique. A finished ultrathin knife form was often ovate, pointed or bi-point in shape and outline with well-controlled marginal pressure flaking. Width to thickness ratios for ultrathin knife forms often exceeded 10 or greater. 
Figure two.  3.8 inch long Ultrathin knife form made from
Georgetown chert and found in Coryell County, Texas
by Hervey McGregor. John Branney Collection.   

Figure three. Ultrathin knife form with width to thickness
ratio near 10.     
Uses of Ultrathin Knife Forms.        

Jodry (1998) noted that ultrathin knife forms were associated with Folsom camps and lithic workshops, not kill sites and initial meat processing sites. Based on use wear, production technology, and archaeological context, Jodry proposed that Folsom people used ultrathin knife forms as filleting knives. Jodry went even further by suggesting the possibility that ultrathin knife forms were ‘women’s knives’. Her case was based on historical Indian tribes where filleting meat was often a woman’s task. Jodry assumed that Paleoindian women may have done the filleting, therefore, ultrathin knife forms may have belonged to the women. Since ultrathin knife

Figure four. 3.5 inch long ultrathin knife form surface
found in Wyoming and exhibiting fine marginal pressure
flaking around the perimeter of the biface.
John Branney Collection.
 forms were so thin and delicate, it would be hard to imagine that Paleoindians used them for anything more rugged and intensive than filleting during the butchering process. Many ultrathin knife forms were so thin and brittle that they would have never survived the more arduous butchering tasks.              

Below, I have captured a passage from my prehistoric adventure novel about the Folsom People called Ghosts of the Heart. This prehistoric adventure is the second novel in the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy. The scene below took place right after the Folsom People trapped and killed a small herd of bison in an arroyo. The scene describes the butchering and harvesting of the meat from the bison carcasses.    

When it was all over, the tribe had killed twenty-two tatanka – bison. The meat from the herd would help the tribe through wani yetu – winter. One of the hunters ran to the camp to tell the people of the tribe. Before long, the entire tribe had returned to help butcher and carry the meat back to the camp. First, everyone in the tribe helped lay all of the carcasses on their bellies with legs sprawled. Then a team of two or three butchers worked on each carcass; while one person held and positioned the carcass, the other person chopped, sawed and cut. The team of butchers then cut the hide lengthwise down the back. They then pulled the hide to the ground on both sides of the carcass, creating a mat that would protect the butchered meat from the ground. The team of butchers extracted the tender cuts of meat under the skin of the back first, followed by the forelegs, shoulders, hump meat, rib cage, and body cavity. They would not waste anything. The team of butchers opened up each body cavity and removed the heart, liver, and gall bladder.

With hammer stones, choppers, and stone knives, the butchers then harvested the hindquarters, hind legs, neck, and skull. As the team of butchers systematically stripped the meat from the carcasses, others carried the meat back to the camp where they cut it into strips and hung it from sagebrush and tree branches to dry. The Folsom People would make pemmican from the meat that was too tough to eat. They then extracted two more delicacies from the skull, the tongue and the brain.

By the time the sun was in the west, the tribe had stripped the tatanka carcasses clean. They would leave any remaining meat for the scavengers of the night. That evening in the camp, there was a grand celebration as the Folsom People celebrated the great hunt.

Although I did not specifically call out ultrathin knife forms in Ghosts of the Heart, that was what the tribe used to cut the bison meat into strips.
Origin of Ultrathin Knife Forms.
There is some evidence that the production of ultrathin knife forms by the Folsom People was

Figure five. From Bradley (1982)
an outgrowth of the Clovis People’s biface reduction process. The use of overshot flakes and the intentional use of hinge and step terminations along the midline of an ultrathin knife form was very close to the process that Clovis People used for biface reduction (Bradley 1982: 203-208).

Bradley described two different thinning methods for biface reduction that both Clovis and Folsom People utilized. He called the first of these thinning methods alternating opposed biface thinning. This method is pictured in the left hand side of Figure five. In this method, initial shaping and thinning of the biface involved the removal of large percussion flakes in a patterned sequence. The knapper began by removing the first large percussion flake from a margin near either end of the biface. Then, the knapper removed another large percussion flake from the same side on the opposite margin near the other end of the biface. The knapper then took off two large percussion flakes next to the first two percussion flakes, but on opposite margins. If the biface needed further thinning, the knapper could remove one or more percussion flakes in the center of the biface. These large percussion flakes often times traveled across the face of the biface, in many cases terminating in outre passe or overshot flakes.
Bradley called the second biface thinning method used by Clovis People and Folsom People opposed diving biface thinning. As thinning on a biface progressed and the biface became narrower and more regularly flaked, the knapper used a different thinning flake at the end of the flaking sequence. This new thinning flake allowed for maximum thinning with less risk of overshot flakes. The knapper accomplished this by removing a sequence of flakes from one margin on one face with intentional hinge-fracture terminations at or near the midline of the biface. These flake scars were

Figure six. 3.32 inches long. Paper thin ultrathin knife form
found in east central Colorado. Highly probable fillet knife.
Note overshot flakes. John Branney Collection.
then met by a series of thinning flakes from the opposite margin, removing most of the hinge terminations and allowing the creation of a biface that was thinner in the middle than on the margins. The cross section of the biface became biconcave. This method is pictured on the right hand side of Figure five.

Once the knapper had thinned the ultrathin knife form to the desire state through percussion flaking, the knapper finished the ultrathin knife form by removing small marginal pressure flakes around all edges of the biface.  

Figure seven. Cross section of ultrathin knife form in
Figure six. John Branney Collection.

Cautionary Note    

You will notice that in my first paragraph that I did not commit or state that ultrathin knife forms were a diagnostic artifact for the Folsom People, because they are not. Other prehistoric cultures, besides Clovis and Folsom, have made ultrathin knife forms using similar technology with similar results. Paleo and ultrathin knife forms are one of the most over identified artifacts in the collecting world. Every collector claims to have paleo or ultrathin knife forms in their collection. At the same time, most collectors want more paleo or ultrathin knife forms in their collections. Add into the mix that paleo and ultrathin knife forms are not diagnostic and there ends up being many misidentifications. In reality, most Paleoindians did not go through the bother of creating these delicate ultrathin knife forms, they mostly used large flakes with retouched edges for cutting and knife work.

If an ultrathin knife form is found on the surface of a prairie, river, creek, lake, plowed field or a mountain, it is impossible to determine with 100 per cent accuracy that Folsom People made that particular ultrathin knife form. For that ultrathin knife form to be attributed to Folsom or any other prehistoric culture, the artifact has to be found in dated stratigraphic and archaeological context or in clear association with other diagnostic Folsom or other culturally diagnostic artifacts. Don’t let anyone fool you in believing, otherwise. There are all kinds of claims when it comes to surface found artifacts, but the proof is in the technology used and how/where it was found. Although Folsom people seem to have preferred ultrathin knife forms, that is not enough proof to conclusively assign surface found ultrathin knife forms to that culture.   
Winds of Eden. The third book and finale in the
Shadows on the Trail Trilogy. Click to Order  
Bradley, Bruce
            1982    Flaked Stone Technology and Typology. In The Agate Basin Site: A Record of the Paleoindian Occupation of the Northwestern High Plains, edited by G. C. Frison and D. J. Stanford, pp. 181 – 208. Academic Press, New York.  

Jodry, M.A.
            1998    The Possible Design of Folsom Ultrathin Knife Bifaces as Fillet Knives for Jerky Production. Current Studies in the Pleistocene 15: 75-77.    

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Good News for Future Readers of Shadows on the Trail!!!

Good news if you have not read my prehistoric thriller Shadows on the Trail!

The publisher has lowered the price for the Shadows on the Trail e book down to $6.99 each!

Order your copy of Shadows on the Trail today and you can be readin...
g it tonight! You can order both Shadows on the Trail and the second book in the Trilogy, Ghosts of the Heart in e book for $11.98 for both books! Then, the real adventure begins.

Join the adventure today! 

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

The Shadows on the Trail Trilogy - Pronghorns in the Pleistocene!

Pronghorn antelope buck looking out across his prairie kingdom.
Photo taken in Wyoming by Author. 
Recently, I was driving down a graveled county road in Wyoming on an early morning jaunt to one of my favorite artifact hunting ranches. A sea of sagebrush and prairie surrounded me in every direction I looked. Then, my peripheral vision from my right eye caught movement out on the prairie alongside my pickup truck. I glanced over and there was a pronghorn antelope buck racing with my pickup. I peered down at my speedometer and saw that I was traveling right around thirty miles per hour. I looked over at the pronghorn buck and he did not appear to even be breathing hard. I took a gander down the stretch of county road in front of me, saw that the road was straight and punched the gas pedal. We will just see how fast Mr. Pronghorn Buck is!

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The pickup truck picked up speed to around thirty-five miles per hour and the pronghorn buck still matched my speed without too much trouble. I checked the road again and sped up to forty miles per hour. At forty miles per hour, the pickup was all over that rutty county road. I decided that forty miles per hour was my limit. I was hoping that it was the limit for the pronghorn buck, as well. I looked over at my pronghorn friend and saw that at forty miles per hour, he was still not finished with me. He lowered his head and found another gear. His legs chewed up the prairie as he accelerated past the front of my pickup truck. He literally left me in his dust.
I backed off to thirty-five miles per hour and that was when the pronghorn buck decided to zoom across the road right in front of me. The last thing I remember was that pronghorn buck’s white rump waving goodbye to my pickup truck and me. After crossing the road, the pronghorn buck headed out onto the prairie where he finally slowed down and stopped. I watched the pronghorn buck in the rear view mirror as I headed on down the road. I guess he was just showing me he was the fastest dude on the prairie. 

Pronghorn antelope are the second fastest land animal in the world, right behind cheetahs. At thirty miles per hour, pronghorns are loping along. At forty-five miles per hour, they are cruising along. At sixty miles per hour, they are simply hauling!   

High Plains archaeological sites are well represented with the remains of pronghorn antelope. The
Folsom projectile point. This was what the Folsom People
used to bring down pronghorn antelope.  

archaeological record of the Folsom People, the main characters of Shadows on the Trail, demonstrates that pronghorn antelope were an important part of their diet. Investigators have found the remains of pronghorn antelope in Folsom-aged strata at two key archaeological sites, the Lindenmeier Site in Colorado and the Agate Basin Site in Wyoming.

It is now time to climb into our time machine and set it for the late Pleistocene, sometime around 8,700 B.C. We will join three young hunters from my prehistoric odyssey novel called Shadows on the Trail on a difficult trek across the Arid Plains. The three young hunters named Chayton, Wiyaka, and Keya are almost out of water and food. From this passage, it appears things are getting worse not better.       

Wiyaka suddenly stopped in his tracks, causing Keya to run into the back of him. After scolding Keya for his clumsiness, Wiyaka pointed his finger towards the parched prairie, northwest of them, where a huge dust cloud rose into the clear blue sky. The three hunters watched the dust cloud with curiosity, unable to determine what was causing it.

“Prairie fire!” Chayton spoke into a strong northwesterly wind.

Hee ya, – No,” Wiyaka responded. “It is the wrong color and we are downwind, we would smell the smoke.”

“Animals?” Chayton suggested.

“Perhaps, maybe bison, I am not sure?” Wiyaka yelled into the wind. “Let’s get closer.”

The three hunters slowly crept forward, hiding behind the tall sagebrush and greasewood, their spears ready to thrust. As they got closer, a low rumbling sound filled the dusty air. Crouching down, Wiyaka signaled to Chayton and Keya to join him.

“We are close enough!” Wiyaka called out to his companions.

Pronghorn antelope buck cruising along on the prairie. 
The dust cloud was heading directly at the three hunters and Chayton looked around for something for them to climb up, but the naked prairie offered nothing. The rumbling sound became louder and the dust in the air became thicker. As the dust cloud headed straight at the three hunters, Chayton covered his watering eyes against the barrage of dust and dirt. The dust cloud was right in front of the three hunters when Wiyaka’s dirty face lit up in a broad smile. He jumped to his feet, waving his spear and screaming at the top of his lungs. Chayton and Keya still hunkered down, looked up at Wiyaka as if he had lost his mind. Wiyaka jumped high in the air, throwing his spear while screaming at the top of his lungs.

In as much time as it took to scream, the lead animals of the herd sharply veered to the right of the three hunters. The hunters watched hundreds, if not thousands, of tatoke – pronghorn antelope race past. The three hunters could no longer see each another in the dense dust cloud that shrouded the plains. When the sound of thundering hooves finally faded away, the dust cloud dissipated and the hunters looked at each other.       

On a wide-open environment like the Arid Plains, pronghorn antelope are almost unapproachable. They have phenomenal eyesight and they miss very little, even at very long distances. If you are a hunter from the Folsom People tribe, armed with a spear or two and without any mode of transportation besides your feet, it is not hard to imagine the dilemma you would have hunting pronghorn antelope.

However, for prehistoric hunters hunting pronghorn antelope there was hope. Although pronghorn
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antelope are unapproachable on a wide-open prairie, they become confused when dealing with physical barriers or surrounded by humans. Trap them in some kind of arroyo or manmade fence and pronghorn antelope will run around in circles until they literally fall over with exhaustion without ever attempting to break free from the enclosure. Prehistoric hunters took advantage of this by building brush fences that funneled the pronghorn antelope herds into enclosed areas. There, the prehistoric hunters dispatched the pronghorns with spears or stone mauls.

Pronghorn antelope also have another weakness, they are excessively curious. If most pronghorn antelope see something unusual on the prairie, they have to find out what it is. They will go as far as walking towards the object just to find out what it is, even if it is a hunter. I have tested pronghorn antelope’s curiosity more times than I care to admit while hunting for artifacts on the wide-open prairie. When I see a pronghorn in the distance, I will wave my walking stick in the air to get its attention. Once it locks on to me, then I have it. I will wave my walking staff occasionally and usually I can get the pronghorn to walk towards me a few steps each time. The game usually ends when I lose interest, not the pronghorn.        

Read the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy novels and see how I used pronghorn antelope in the books. 

The newly released finale of the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy. 
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