|Click for John Bradford Branney Books|
In the archaeological record of the High Plains of North America, at least two documented cultures preceding the Folsom People, Clovis and Goshen. Some people believe that Clovis People were the ancestors to the Folsom People, but so far I have not read any conclusive archaeological evidence or analysis that verifies this to be true. More importantly, I do not believe there is any evidence that leads investigators to believe that there was a clear relationship between Clovis and Folsom Peoples. Since these cultures did not leave any writing or documentation behind, we are only left with what has been found by investigators in documented archaeological sites, which is scant information when trying to establish prehistoric cultural relationships.
From the archaeological record, we know the time frames when Clovis and Folsom People existed, we know what these people ate from the refuse found in archaeological sites and that they both focused on big game hunting for subsistence but Clovis People preferred mammoths while Folsom People preferred bison. However, based on archaeological evidence both cultures were not picky what they ate. After all, both cultures were probably in survival mode.
Folsom People also made very thin bifaces with biplanar or biconcave profiles, instead of the typical biconvex biface profile of the Clovis People. These thin bifaces that Folsom People made were called ultrathin knife forms and I actually did a blog posting on these knife forms. We also see an increase in the making and use of end scrapers from Clovis to Folsom cultures. End scrapers were a much more prevalent part of the stone tool kit during Folsom times.
What is a blade? Here is one definition of a blade from a wonderful book called Clovis Technology, written by Bradley, Collins, and Hemmings. The authors define blade as a specialized, elongated flake intentionally detached from a core selected and prepared for that purpose. This flake or blade is often twice as long as it is wide.
So, how did Clovis People make blades? Figure 2.7 is from another wonderful book entitled Clovis Blademaking Technology, written by Michael Collins. A general overview of how we think Clovis People produced blades is as follows: a suitable rock or cobble was found (2.7a) which then led to the Clovis knapper making a blade core that could be used for the removal of as many blades as possible. The knapper created a suitable blade core by first knocking off one end of the cobble with a hammerstone (2.7b). The resultant fractured surface on the end of the cobble then became the striking platform for subsequent blade removals.
|Figure 3. a 1.9 inch long crested blade surface found |
in Logan County, Colorado. Note bifacial flaking.
A photo of a crested blade from my collection is in Figure 3. Note the triangular shape and the bifacial flaking. The bottom of the crested blade is smooth and has a slight bend to it.
Even though we want to adhere to our definition of blade as twice as long as it is wide, blades do come in all shapes and sizes. While some blades show very little modification by human touch, other blades are well worked and fabricated. While some blades were purposely used for cutting only, other blades had drilling, scraping, cutting, engraving, and gouging functionality.
My biggest regret is not learning about blades earlier in my life. I wonder how many blades I have walked over without giving them a second glance? The answer to that question would probably make me a little sick to my stomach. Oh well, we learn each and every day, that's what counts!
Read the Shadows on the Trail Trilogy for the Folsom story!
|Click to Order This Book|