Friday, February 19, 2016

G is for Goshen-Plainview, W is for WINDS OF EDEN

Figure One. 4.7 inch long Plainview spear / knife form from the Goshen - Plainview Complex. It was a surface find from Yuma County, Colorado in the 1930s. The Goshen - Plainview Complex ran from approximately
11,000 to 8,000 years old. Ex. Perry Anderson and Virgil Russell. John Branney Collection.

G is for Goshen-Plainview Complex. A 4.7 inch long Plainview spear / knife form from the Goshen - Plainview Complex. The material for this point is a tan orthoquartzite material from the Cloverly geologic formation in Wyoming. It was a surface find in Yuma County, Colorado. John Branney Collection.

Many experts believe that Goshen and Plainview projectile points are typologically and technologically the same points. However, the large time gap between the use of Goshen points on    
Figure Three. The third book in the Trilogy,
the northern plains (11,000 years plus) and the later use of Plainview points on the southern plains (around 10,000 years ago) has not been adequately explained. If the time gap was due to the dispersion of Goshen projectile point technology from the north to the south, why did it take approximately one thousand years to travel several hundred miles from the northern plains to the southern plains? Why have we not seen a similar time gap from north to south with Clovis and Folsom?

If you have read the SHADOWS ON THE TRAIL Quadrilogy you know that the book series is about the Folsom People, who overlapped in time and space with the Goshen People on the northern plains. Clovis People preceded the Folsom People, but may have had time and space overlap with the Goshen People.

Although there has been considerable progress made in better understanding point type chronology and stratigraphic relationships between Clovis, Folsom, and Goshen, we still lack the evidence of the cultural or social relationships between these three groups. There are many examples of archaeological sites where the prehistoric inhabitants used a single projectile point type, providing evidence that projectile point type was one basis for defining a specific social group. When investigators find two or three projectile point types at the same site with similar or overlapping radiocarbon dates, it creates more questions than answers. Did the same social group use different projectile point type technology at the same site or did different social groups use the same site at similar time frames? We may never know the answer.
Figure Three. 3,000 years of High Plains projectile point evolution. From left to right Clovis, Goshen,
Folsom, and Midland. Ages range from approximately 13,000 years old to 10,000 years old. 
For scale, the Clovis on the left is 2.2 inches long. John Branney Collection.
Surface artifact hunters are at a distinct disadvantage when it comes to identifying Plainview and Goshen artifacts. Without knowing the archaeological or stratigraphic context of the artifact, it is very possible to misidentify the point type. There are numerous point type examples of lanceolate shaped points with concave bases, edge grinding, and basal thinning or fluting. These point types spanned a timeframe of over 3,000 years on the High Plains (Frison 1991: 24f). Clovis and Folsom are readily identifiable from Goshen and Plainview, but types such as Allen and Midland are not.

If you can't get out in the field to look for artifacts and visit our prehistoric past, do the next best thing - read the SHADOWS ON THE TRAIL Quadrilogy and get your prehistoric fix, quickly and effectively. Available at Amazon,com.

Figure Four. The first book in the Trilogy, SHADOWS ON