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The [bison] cows crowded the bull, the smell of water luring them into the arroyo. The bull stood his ground, pawing the ground and bellowing. The cows shoved the bull, attempting to push him up the arroyo, but he held his ground. Then, one by one, the cows went around the bull, passing through to the inside of the wooden fence.
Chayton knelt with Hoka on top of the hill, patiently waiting for the last of the cows and calves to enter the arroyo. When the last of the tatanka [bison] entered the arroyo, he signaled a hunter on another hillside. Chayton had wanted the tatanka bull in the trap, but it was not going to happen. The hunters would just leave him alone. There was too much risk attacking the bull on the open prairie. The hunt would be more than successful with the cows and the calves. Chayton would let the last of the herd get to the wakon ya [natural water spring] and start drinking before he signaled the attack.
“WANA! – NOW!” Chayton bellowed and the hunters sprung the trap. A hunter signaled Tah and Wiyaka who lit their torches and then raced to the arroyo with the other hunters. The hunters arrived at the wooden fence and dropped more dead wood in the gap between the two sides of the arroyo. The hunters then picked up a large log that was lying behind the fence and set it down across the top of the fence. They had sealed the herd into the arroyo, but it would take fire to hold the herd. Tah looked up and saw that the tatanka [bison] bull had already taken off running, abandoning his herd. Tah and Wiyaka threw the torches on the wooden fence and it erupted into flames. Smoke rose as the flames burned into the green sagebrush, creating a huge smoke screen. The smoke signaled Chayton and the other hunters to attack. Carrying large bundles of spears, the hunters ran up to both sides of the arroyo and began heaving spears at the unwary herd. The herd milled around the wakon ya [natural water spring], confused by the spears and the smoke.
A rain of spears fell on the herd from three sides of the arroyo…
I took the above passage from my adventure book entitled GHOSTS OF THE HEART, the second book in my prehistoric saga entitled the SHADOWS ON THE TRAIL Trilogy, which is about a tribe of Paleoindian hunters-gatherers from what is now called the Folsom Complex. My trilogy series took place in Texas and Wyoming around 10,700 years ago.
However, this particular blog posting, G is for GHOSTS OF THE HEART, C is for Cody Complex is about another group of real-life Paleoindian hunters-gatherers who lived a thousand years or so after the Folsom People in GHOSTS OF THE HEART. However, over that one thousand years or so, the lifestyle from the Folsom People to Cody Complex People did not change much. They still were nomadic hunters and gatherers whose food economy was based on bison procurement. Perhaps, over that thousand years, there was some refinement in the ways and means of bison procurement, but both the Folsom and Cody Complex cultures were very efficient at it.
The prehistoric artifacts in the photograph represent a prehistoric culture called the Cody Complex. From left to right; a Wyoming Alberta knife form (2.5 inches long), a Wyoming Cody knife, a Colorado Scottsbluff dart point, a Wyoming Eden dart point, a Colorado Firstview dart point, and a western Nebraska Holland (?) dart point. Although Holland projectile points carry several Cody Complex characteristics, many researchers believe that Holland projectile points are actually derivatives from the Dalton prehistoric culture. Now, just a taste about the Cody Complex.
Jepsen (1951) first coined the word Cody Complex to describe the co-occurrence of Scottsbluff and Eden points at the Horner site in northwest Wyoming. A complex is a group of related traits or characteristics that combine to form a complete activity, process, or cultural unit. The presence of several key implements or tool types in association defines a lithic complex.
Marie Wormington (1957) expanded the Cody Complex to include the co-occurrence of Eden, Scottsbluff, and Cody Knives. Originally, many researchers believed that the Alberta point type preceded the Cody Complex, but radiocarbon dates have shown some time overlap between Alberta and the other Cody Complex artifact types.
Cody Complex people were late Pleistocene / early Holocene hunter-gatherers who placed an emphasis on bison hunting. These people existed between two major environmental phenomenon; the Younger Dryas from 13,000 to 11,500 B.P. and the Altithermal from 7,000 to 4,500 B.P.
The Cody Complex was one of the longest North American Paleoindian traditions, lasting approximately 2,800 calendar years. The Cody Complex’s geographic expanse is second only to the Clovis prehistoric culture. The geographic range for the Cody Complex went from the Great Basin on the west to the St. Lawrence River on the east and from the Canadian plains on the north to the Texas gulf coast on the south.All artifacts reside in the John Branney Collection.
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